Incomplete List of Prominent Revolutionaries from Wikipedia
1. Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.
2. B. R. Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956) was an Indian jurist, politician, philosopher, anthropologist, historian and economist. A revivalist for Buddhism in India, he inspired the Modern Buddhist movement. As independent India’s first law minister, he was principal architect of the Constitution of India.
3. Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (April 18, 1819 – February 27, 1874) was a Cuban planter who freed his slaves and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years’ War.
4. Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606) was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
5. Jyotirao Phule (11 April 1827 – 28 November 1890) was a great activist, thinker, social reformer, writer, philosopher, theologist, scholar, editor and revolutionary from Maharashtra, India. Jyotiba Phule and his wife Savitribai Phule were pioneers of women’s education in India. His remarkable influence was apparent in fields like education, agriculture, caste system, women and widow upliftment and removal of untouchability. He is most known for his efforts to educate women and the lower castes as well as the masses. He, after educating his wife, opened the first school for girls in India in August 1848. In September 1873, Jyotirao, along with his followers, formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) with the main objective of liberating the Bahujans, Shudras and Ati-Shudras and protecting them from exploitation and atrocities. For his fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste and his contributions to the field of education, he is regarded as one of the most important figures of the Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra. Dhananjay Keer, his biographer, notes him as “the father of Indian social revolution”.
6. Julius Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previously Tanganyika, from the country’s founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985.
In 1967, influenced by the ideas of African socialism, Nyerere issued the Arusha Declaration, which outlined his vision of ujamaa (“unity”, “oneness” or “familyhood”), a concept that came to dominate his policies. However, his policies led to economic decline, systematic corruption, and unavailability of goods. In the early 1970s, Nyerere ordered his security forces to forcibly transfer much of the population to collective farms and, because of opposition from villagers, often burned villages down. This campaign pushed the nation to the brink of starvation and made it dependent on foreign food aid.
7. Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, commonly referred to as North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Prime Minister from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to his death. He was also the leader of the Workers’ Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994 (titled as chairman from 1949 to 1966 and as general secretary after 1966). He invaded South Korea in 1950, and almost succeeded in overrunning the entire peninsula but for UN intervention. The Korean War, sometimes referred to as the Korean Civil War, was stopped with a cease-fire signed on 27 July 1953. As of now, the Korean War has technically not ended.
From the mid-1960s, he promoted his self-developed Juche variant of socialist organization, which later replaced Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of the state.
8. Sanjaasürengiin Zorig (20 April 1962 – 2 October 1998) was a prominent Mongolian politician and leader of the country’s 1990 democratic revolution.
9. Song Jiaoren (5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT). He was assassinated in 1913 after leading his Kuomintang party to victory in China’s first democratic elections.
10. Surya Sen (22 March 1894 – 12 January 1934) was a Bengali freedom fighter (against British rule) who is noted for leading the 1930 Chittagong armory raid In Chittagong of Bengal in British India (now in Bangladesh).
11. Syngman Rhee (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was a Korean statesman and the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea as well as the first president of South Korea.
12. Thein Sein (20 April 1945) is a Burmese politician and former military commander who has been President of Burma (Myanmar) since March 2011. He was the Prime Minister from 2007 until 2011 and considered by some as a moderate and reformist in the post-junta government.
13. Theodoros Kolokotronis (3 April 1770 – 4 February 1843) was a Greek general and the pre-eminent leader of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.
14. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He was a spokesman for democracy, embraced the principles of republicanism and the rights of man with worldwide influence.
15. Walter Rodney (23 March 1942 – 13 June 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian, political activist and preeminent scholar, who was assassinated in Guyana in 1980.
1. Andreas Vokos Miaoulis (20 May 1768 – 24 June 1835), was an admiral and politician who commanded Greek naval forces during the Greek War of Independence (1821-1829).
2. Che Guevara (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967) was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist.
3. Eva Perón (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón (1895–1974) and served as the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952.
In 1946, Juan Perón was elected President of Argentina. Over the course of the next six years, Eva Perón became powerful within the pro-Peronist trade unions, primarily for speaking on behalf of labor rights. She also ran the Ministries of Labor and Health, founded and ran the charitable Eva Perón Foundation, championed women’s suffrage in Argentina, and founded and ran the nation’s first large-scale female political party, the Female Peronist Party.
4. Farabundo Martí (May 5, 1893 – February 1, 1932) was a social activist and a revolutionary leader in El Salvador during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre.
5. Franjo Tudman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician. Following the country’s independence from Yugoslavia he became the first President of Croatia.
6. Hirohito (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989), was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to primarily by his posthumous name Emperor Showa.
At the start of his reign, Japan was already one of the great powers — the ninth-largest economy in the world after Italy, the third-largest naval power, and one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations. He was the head of state under the limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan’s imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War II. After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, despite his involvement. During the postwar period, he became the symbol of the new state and Japan’s recovery, and by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world’s second largest economy.
7. Ho Chi Minh (19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969) was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Vi?t C?ng (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War.
8. John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. Brown’s followers also killed five pro-slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. In 1859, Brown led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. Brown’s trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.
9. Josip Broz Tito (7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, Tito was “seen by most as a benevolent dictator” due to his successful economic and diplomatic policies and was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies successfully maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation.
10. Karl Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx’s work in economics laid the basis for the current understanding of labor and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought.
11. Kenneth Kaunda (born 28 April 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991.
He was at the forefront of the struggle for independence from European rule. Dissatisfied with Nkumbula’s leadership of the African National Congress, he broke away and founded the Zambian African National Congress, later becoming the head of the United National Independence Party. He was the first President of the independent Zambia.
From 1968, all political parties except UNIP were banned. At the same time, Kaunda oversaw the acquisition of majority stakes in key foreign-owned companies. The oil crisis of 1973 and a slump in export revenues put Zambia in a state of economic crisis.
International pressure forced Kaunda to change the rules that had kept him in power. Multi-party elections took place in 1991, in which Frederick Chiluba, the leader of the Movement for Multiple Democracy, ousted Kaunda.
12. Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
13. Manuel Marulanda (May 13, 1930 [disputed] – March 26, 2008) was the main leader of the FARC-EP. Marulanda was born in a coffee-growing region of west-central Colombia in the Quindío Department, to a peasant family politically aligned with the Liberal Party during conflicts in the 1940s and 1950s.
Marulanda himself changed his political and ideological inclinations to the Communist Party (PCC) during “La Violencia” (roughly 1948 to 1958) that followed the assassination of the Liberal Party’s leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán.
14. Maurice Bishop (21 May 1943 – 19 October 1983) was a Grenadian politician and revolutionary, who seized power in a coup in 1979 from Eric Gairy and served as Prime Minister of the People’s Revolutionary Government of Grenada until 1983, when he was overthrown in another coup by Bernard Coard, a member of his own government, and executed.
15. Maximilien de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution.
As a member of the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin Club, he advocated against the death penalty and for the abolition of slavery, while supporting equality of rights, universal suffrage and the establishment of a republic. He opposed war with Austria and the possibility of a coup by the Marquis de Lafayette. As a member of the Committee of Public Safety, he was an important figure during the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended a few months after his arrest and execution in July 1794.
16. Meles Zenawi (8 May 1955 – 20 August 2012) was the Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 until his death in 2012. From 1989, he was the chairman of the Tigrayan Peoples’ Liberation Front(TPLF), and the head of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) since its formation in 1991. Before becoming a prime minister in 1995, he had served the president of the transitional government of Ethiopia from 1991 to 1995.
While his government was credited with reforms such as those that led a multi-party political system in Ethiopia, introduction of private press in Ethiopia and decreased child mortality rates, his government was also accused of political repression and various human rights abuses, curbing freedom of press. and dissent.
17. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811) was a Jesuit-trained, Mexican priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
18. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881– 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer in the Ottoman military, revolutionary statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey.
19. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Hume, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, but a hero of liberty by Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterized as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland his record is harshly criticized.
20. Pritilata Waddedar (5 May 1911 – 23 September 1932) was a Bengali revolutionary nationalist. She was the first Indian woman revolutionary to fight the British.
After a brief stint as a school teacher, Pritilata joined a revolutionary group headed by Surya Sen. She led a 15 man team of revolutionaries in a 1932 attack on the Pahartali European Club, which had a sign board that read “Dogs and Indians not allowed”. The revolutionaries torched the club and were later caught by the British police. To avoid getting arrested, Pritilata consumed cyanide and died.
21. Pol Pot1(9 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian communist revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge from 1963 until 1997. From 1963 to 1981, he served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. As such, he became the leader of Cambodia on April 17, 1975, when his forces captured Phnom Penh. From 1976 to 1979, he also served as the prime minister of Democratic Kampuchea.
He presided over a communist dictatorship that imposed a radical form of agrarian socialism on the country. His government forced urban dwellers to relocate to the countryside to work in collective farms and forced labor projects. The combined effects of executions, forced labor, malnutrition, and poor medical care caused the deaths of approximately 25 percent of the Cambodian population. In all, an estimated 1 to 3 million people (out of a population of slightly over 8 million) died due to the policies of his four-year premiership.
22. Sam Nujoma (12 May 1929) is a Namibian politician who was the first President of Namibia from 1990 to 2005. He led the South-West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) in its long struggle against South African rule and took office as President when Namibia obtained independence on 21 March 1990. He was subsequently re-elected in 1994 and 1999, remaining in office until March 2005. He was President of SWAPO from its founding in 1960 until 2007.
23. Sophie Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and revolutionary, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany. She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich with her brother Hans. As a result, they were both executed by guillotine.
24. Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian activist and revolutionary.
25. Toussaint Louverture (20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into the independent state of Haiti. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
26. Vladimir Lenin (22 April 1870 – 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death. Politically a Marxist, his theoretical contributions to Marxist thought are known as Leninism, which coupled with Marxian economic theory have collectively come to be known as Marxism–Leninism.
27. William the Silent (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years’ War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands.
1. Andry Rajoelina (30 May 1974) was the President of the High Transitional Authority of Madagascar. He became president on 21 March 2009 during a political crisis, having held the office of Mayor of Antananarivo for one year prior, and stepped down on 25 January 2014 following internationally recognized general elections held in 2013.
2. Aung San Suu Kyi (19 June 1945) is a Burmese opposition politician and chairperson of the National League for Democracy (NLD) in Burma. In the 1990 general election, the NLD won 59% of the national votes and 81% (392 of 485) of the seats in Parliament. She had, however, already been detained under house arrest before the elections. She remained under house arrest in Burma for almost 15 of the 21 years from 20 July 1989 until her most recent release on 13 November 2010, becoming one of the world’s most prominent political prisoners.
3. Benazir Bhutto (21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician and stateswoman who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1988 until October 1990, and 1993 until her final dismissal on November 1996. She was the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a former prime minister of Pakistan and the founder of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), which she led.
In 1982, at age 29, Benazir Bhutto became the chairperson of PPP – a center-left democratic socialist political party, making her the first woman in Pakistan to head a major political party. In 1988, she became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state and was also Pakistan’s first (and thus far, only) female prime minister. Benazir Bhutto drove initiatives for Pakistan’s economy and national security, and she implemented social capitalist policies for industrial development and growth. In addition, her political philosophy and economic policies emphasized deregulation (particularly of the financial sector),flexible labor ,markets, the denationalization of state-owned corporations, and the withdrawal of subsidies to others. Benazir Bhutto’s popularity waned amid recession, corruption, and high unemployment which later led to the dismissal of her government by conservative President Ghulam Ishaq Khan.
4. Carl Gustav Mannerheim (4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman. Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent of Finland (1918–1919),Commander-in-Chief of Finland’s Defense Forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, and the sixth President of Finland (1944–1946). In a Finnish survey 53 years after his death, Mannerheim was voted the greatest Finn of all time. Given the broad recognition in Finland and elsewhere of his unparalleled role in establishing and later preserving Finland’s independence from Russia, Mannerheim has long been referred to as the father of modern Finland, and the Finnish capital Helsinki’s Mannerheim Museum memorializing the leader’s life and times has been called “the closest thing there is to a [Finnish] national shrine.”
5. Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People’s Republic of Hungary on two occasions. Nagy’s second term ended when his non-Soviet-backed government was brought down by Soviet invasion in the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956, resulting in Nagy’s execution on charges of treason two years later.
6. Ion Victor Antonescu (June 15, 1882 – June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier, authoritarian politician, and convicted war criminal. The Prime Minister and Conducator during most of World War II, he presided over two successive wartime dictatorships. A Romanian Army career officer who made his name during the 1907 peasants’ revolt and the World War I Romanian Campaign, the anti-semitic Antonescu sympathized with the far right and fascist National Christian and Iron Guard groups for much of the interwar period. An atypical figure among Holocaust perpetrators, Antonescu enforced policies independently responsible for the deaths of as many as 400,000 people, most of them Bessarabian, Ukrainian and Romanian Jews, as well as Romanian Romani.
7. James Connolly (5 June 1868 – 12 May 1916) was an Irish republican and socialist leader, aligned to syndicalism and the Industrial Workers of the World. He was born in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland, to Irish immigrant parents. He left school for working life at the age of 11, but became one of the leading Marxist theorists of his day. He was executed by a British firing squad because of his leadership role in the Easter Rising of 1916.
8. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (02 June 1947 – 6 June 1984) was the leader of the Damdami Taksal (a Sikh religious group) and political revolutionary and is notable for his support of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution. He called for a return to what is considered to be the “pure” roots of Sikhism.
9. Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution. His journalism became renowned for its fierce tone, uncompromising stance toward the new leaders and institutions of the revolution, and advocacy of basic human rights for the poorest members of society.
10. Joe Slovo (23 May 1926 – 6 January 1995) was a South African politician, an opponent of the apartheid system. He was a long-time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP), a leading member of the African National Congress (ANC), and a commander of the ANC’s military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe.
11. José Bonifácio de Andrada (June 13, 1763 – April 6, 1838), was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I. He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil’s underdeveloped interior (effected over a century later as Brasília). His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals.
12. José Gervasio Artigas (June 19, 1764 – September 23, 1850) is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called “the father of Uruguayan nationhood”.
13. José Rizal (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), was a Filipino nationalist, novelist, poet, ophthalmologist, journalist, and revolutionary. He is widely considered the greatest national hero of the Philippines.
14. Joshua Nkomo (19 June 1917 – 1 July 1999) was the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) and a member of the Ndebele (Kalanga) tribe.
He was a trade-union leader, who became president of the banned National Democratic Party, and was jailed for ten years by Rhodesia’s white minority government. After his release, ZAPU contributed to the fall of that government, but then feuded with the rival ZANU group led by Robert Mugabe. Fearing for his life, Nkomo fled the country, before controversially allowing ZAPU to merge with ZANU.
15. Manuel Belgrano (3 June 1770 – 20 June 1820) was an Argentine economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader. He took part in the Argentine Wars of Independence and created the Flag of Argentina. He is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country.
16. Martin McGuinness (23 May 1950) is an Irish Sinn Féin politician who has been the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland since 2007. He was also Sinn Féin’s unsuccessful candidate for President of Ireland in the 2011 election.
17. Mikhail Bakunin (30 May 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist, and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism, and one of the principle founders of the “social anarchist” tradition. Bakunin’s enormous prestige as an activist made him one of the most famous ideologues in Europe, and he gained substantial influence among radicals throughout Russia and Europe.
18. Miklos Horthy (18 June 1868 – 9 February 1957) was regent of the Kingdom of Hungary during the years between World Wars I and II and throughout most of World War II, serving from 1 March 1920 to 15 October 1944.
A conservative who was distinctly inclined toward the right of the political spectrum, Horthy guided Hungary through the years between the two world wars and, in exchange for the restoration of some of the Hungarian territories lost by the Treaty of Trianon, he took Hungary into an alliance with Nazi Germany.
19. Pancho Villa (5 June 1878 – 20 July 1923) was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
20. Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736 – June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter and politician who became known as an orator during the movement for independence in Virginia in the 1770s. A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
Henry led the opposition to the Stamp Act of 1765 and is remembered for his “Give me liberty, or give me death!” speech. Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he is regarded as one of the most influential champions of Republicanism and an invested promoter of the American Revolution and its fight for independence.
21. Peter the Great (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother. In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power.
22. Ram Prasad Bismil (11 June 1897 – 19 December 1927) was an Indian revolutionary who participated in Mainpuri conspiracy of 1918, and the Kakori conspiracy of 1925, both against British Empire. Bismil was one of the founder members of the revolutionary organization Hindustan Republican Association.
23. Rash Behari Bose (25 May 1886 – 21 January 1945) was a revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India and was one of the key organizers of the Ghadar Revolution and later, the Indian National Army.
24. Raúl Castro (3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who has been President of the Council of State of Cuba and the President of the Council of Ministers of Cuba since 2008; he previously exercised presidential powers in an acting capacity from 2006 to 2008. He is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces (Army, Navy, and Air Force) and has also been First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) since 2011.
Raúl Castro was a rebel commander during the 1950s; after his brother Fidel Castro, took power, Raúl Castro was one of the most important figures in the party, serving as Minister of the Armed Forces from 1959 to 2008.
25. Sukarno (6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia.
Sukarno was the leader of his country’s struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia’s first president, in office from 1945 to 1967. He was a prominent leader of Indonesia’s nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno was appointed as first president. He led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgment of Indonesian independence in 1949.
26. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Indian pro-independence activist, politician as well as a poet, writer and playwright. He advocated dismantling the system of caste in Hindu culture, and reconversion of the converted Hindus back to Hindu religion. Savarkar created the term Hindutva, and emphasised its distinctiveness from Hinduism which he associated with social and political disunity. The stated aim of Savarkar’s Hindutva was to create an inclusive collective identity. The five elements of his philosophy were Utilitarianism, Rationalism and Positivism, Humanism and Universalism, Pragmatism and Realism.
1. Afonso I of Portugal (25 June 1109 – 6 December 1185) nicknamed “the Conqueror”, “the Founder” or “the Great” by the Portuguese, and (“the Portuguese”) and (“son of Henry”, “Henriques”) by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia, the County of Portugal, from Galicia’s overlord, the King of León, in 1139, establishing a new kingdom and doubling its area with the Reconquista, an objective that he pursued until his death, in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors.
2. Assata Shakur (July 16, 1947) is an African-American activist and escaped convicted murderer who was a member of the Black Panther Party (BPP) and Black Liberation Army (BLA). Between 1971 and 1973, Shakur was accused of several crimes and made the subject of a multi-state manhunt.
3. Buenaventura Durruti (14 July 1896 – 20 November 1936) was an Anarcho-syndicalist militant involved with the CNT, FAI and other anarchist organizations during the period leading up to and including the Spanish Civil War. Durruti played an influential role during the Spanish revolution and is remembered as a hero in the Anarchist movement.
4. Carlos Fonseca (June 23, 1936 – November 8, 1976) was a Nicaraguan teacher and librarian who founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN). Fonseca was later killed in the mountains of Nicaragua, three years before the FSLN took power.
5. Chris Hani (28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993) was the leader of the South African Communist Party and chief of staff of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). He was a fierce opponent of the apartheid government. He was assassinated on 10 April 1993.
6. Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century.
7. Francisco Javier Mina (July 1, 1789 – November 11, 1817) was a Spanish lawyer and army officer who later became a Mexican revolutionary figure.
8. Frantz Fanon (20 July 1925 – 6 December 1961) was a Martinique-born French psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer whose works are influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory, and Marxism. As an intellectual, Fanon was a political radical, and an existentialist humanist concerning the psychopathology of colonization, and the human, social, and cultural consequences of decolonization.
In the course of his work as a physician and psychiatrist, Fanon supported the Algerian war of independence from France, and was a member of the Algerian National Liberation Front. For more than four decades, the life and works of Frantz Fanon have inspired movements in Palestine, Sri Lanka, the U.S. and South Africa.
9. George Grivas (July 5, 1898 – January 27, 1974) was a Cyprus-born general in the Greek Army, leader of the EOKA guerrilla organization and EOKA B paramilitary organization.
10. Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an French-born general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy and the world. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy’s “fathers of the fatherland”.
Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy. He was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II.
11. Jean-Bertrand Aristide (15 July 1953) is a Haitian former Catholic priest of the Salesian order and politician who served as Haiti’s first democratically elected president.
12. Lev Kamenev (18 July 1883 – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician. He served briefly as the first head of state of Soviet Russia in 1917, and from 1923-24 the acting Premier in the last year of Vladimir Lenin’s life. Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Kamenev fell out of favor and, following a show trial, was executed.
13. Mangal Pandey (19 July 1827 – 8 April 1857), was an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. Pandey was a private in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry regiment of the British East India Company. While contemporary British opinion considered him a traitor and mutineer, Pandey is widely regarded as a freedom fighter in modern India.
14. Nelson Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was South Africa’s first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalized racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997.
15. Nursultan Nazarbayev (6 July 1940) is the President of Kazakhstan. He has been the country’s leader since 1989, when he was named First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR, and was elected the nation’s first president following its independence from the Soviet Union in December 1991. In April 2011, Nazarbayev was re-elected to another five-year term.
16. Patrice Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese independence leader and the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo (now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo) after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960.
17. Salvador Allende (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
18. Souphanouvong (July 13, 1909 — January 9, 1995) was, along with his half-brother Prince Souvanna Phouma and Prince Boun Oum of Champasak, one of the “Three Princes” who represented respectively the communist (pro-Vietnam), neutralist, and royalist political factions in Laos. He was the figurehead President of Laos from December 1975 to August 1991.
he became the figurehead leader of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party, and upon its successful seizure of power in 1975, he became the first President of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (and President of the Supreme People’s Assembly), a position which he held until his retirement in 1986.
19. Tom Barry (1 July 1897 – 2 July 1980) was one of the most prominent guerrilla leaders in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence.
20. Vasil Levski (18 July 1837 – 18 February 1873), was a Bulgarian revolutionary and a national hero of Bulgaria. Dubbed the Apostle of Freedom, Levski ideologized and strategized a revolutionary movement to liberate Bulgaria from Ottoman rule. Founding the Internal Revolutionary Organization, Levski sought to foment a nationwide uprising through a network of secret regional committees.
21. Vladimir Herzog (27 June 1937 – 25 October 1975) was a Brazilian journalist, university professor and playwright of Croatian origin. He also developed a taste for photography, because of his film projects.
In October 1975, Herzog, then editor in chief of TV Cultura, was tortured to death by the political police of the military dictatorship, which later forged his suicide.
1. Alija Izetbegovic (8 August 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Bosniak politician, activist, lawyer, author, and philosopher who in 1990 became the first President of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He served in this role until 1996, when he became a member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, serving until 2000. He was also the author of several books, most notably Islam Between East and West and the Islamic Declaration.
2. Benito Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce (“the leader”), Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism.
3. Bernardo O’Higgins (August 20,1778– October 24, 1842) was a Chilean independence leader who, together with José de San Martín, freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile (1817–1823), he is considered one of Chile’s founding fathers, as he was the first holder of this title to head a fully independent Chilean state.
4. Chandra Shekhar Azad (23 July 1906 – 27 February 1931), was an Indian revolutionary who reorganized the Hindustan Republican Association under the new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after the death of its founder, Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan. He is considered to be the mentor of Bhagat Singh and chief strategist of the HSRA.
5. Charlotte Corday (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793) was a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed under the guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible, through his role as a politician and journalist, for the more radical course the Revolution had taken. More specifically, he played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was memorialized in a celebrated painting by Jacques-Louis David which shows Marat after Corday had stabbed him to death in his bathtub. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous (the Angel of Assassination).
6. Emiliano Zapata (8 August 1879 – 10 April 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, and the founder of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo.
7. Fidel Castro (August 13, 1926) is a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008. He also served as the Commander in Chief of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces from 1959 to 2008, and as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, under his administration the Republic of Cuba became a one-party socialist state; industry and businesses were nationalized, and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society. Internationally, Castro was the Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement, from 1979 to 1983 and from 2006 to 2008.
8. Hugo Chávez (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician and the President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. He was the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), which he led until 2012.
9. Jonas Savimbi (August 3, 1934 – February 22, 2002) was an Angolan political and military leader. He founded and led the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), a movement that first waged a guerrilla war against Portuguese colonial rule, 1966–1974, then confronted the rival Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) during the decolonization conflict, 1974–75, and after independence in 1975 fought the ruling MPLA in the Angolan Civil War until his death in a clash with government troops in 2002.
10. Marcus Garvey (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).
11. Mohammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia’s first vice president, later also serving as the country’s Prime Minister. Known as “The Proclamator”, he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch.
12. Napoleon (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.
13. Omar Mukhtar (20 August 1858 – 16 September 1931), beginning in 1912, he organized and, for nearly twenty years, led native resistance to Italian colonization of Libya. Italian armed forces captured and hanged him in 1931.
14. Simón Bolívar (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830) was a military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Latin America’s successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas.
15. Sri Aurobindo (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, Maharishi, guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for freedom from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then turned into a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution.
16. T. E. Lawrence (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935), known professionally as T. E. Lawrence, was a British Army officer renowned especially for his liaison role during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and the Arab Revolt against Ottoman Turkish rule of 1916–18. The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as Lawrence of Arabia, a title which was used for the 1962 film based on his World War I activities.
17. Vicente Guerrero (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico.
18. Yoweri Museveni (15 August c. 1944) is a Ugandan politician who has been President of Uganda since 29 January 1986.
1. Agostinho Neto (September 17, 1922 – September 10, 1979) served as the first President of Angola (1975–1979), after having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the war for independence (1961–1974). Until his death, he led the MPLA in the civil war(1975–2002). His birthday is celebrated as National Heroes Day, a public holiday in Angola.
2. Ahmad Shah Massoud (September 2, 1953 – September 9, 2001) was an Afghan political and military leader, who was a central figure in the resistance against the Soviet occupation between 1979 and 1989 and in the following years of civil war. He was assassinated on September 9, 2001.
3. Aris Velouchiotis (August 27, 1905 – June 16, 1945), was the most prominent leader and chief instigator of the Greek People’s Liberation Army (ELAS), the military branch of the National Liberation Front (EAM), which was the major resistance organization in occupied Greece from 1942 to 1945. Aris Velouchiotis was appointed military leader of ELAS at the beginning of the Resistance Movement, by the EAM leadership, being at the same time a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Greece.
4. Benoy Basu (September 11, 1908- December 13, 1930) was a Bengali freedom fighter (against British rule) who is noted for launching an attack on the Secretariat Building – the Writers’ Building in the Dalhousie square in Kolkata.
5. Eleftherios Venizelos (23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies. Elected several times as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1932, Venizelos had such profound influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being “the maker of modern Greece”, and is still widely known as the “Ethnarch”.
6. Eric Rudolph (September 19, 1966) is responsible for a series of anti-abortion and anti-gay-motivated bombings across the southern United States between 1996 and 1998, which killed two people and injured 111 others. The Federal Bureau of Investigation considers him a terrorist.
As a teenager Rudolph was taken by his mother to a Church of Israel compound in 1984; it is connected to the Christian Identity movement, a militant, racist and anti-Semitic organization that believes whites are God’s chosen people. He has confirmed religious motivation, but denied racial motivation for his crimes.
7. Fred Hampton (August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969) was an African-American activist and deputy chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party (BPP).
8. Hans Fritz Scholl (22 September 1918 – 22 February 1943) was a founding member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany.
9. Kim Gu (August 29, 1876 – June 26, 1949), was one of the founders of the Republic of Korea, a South Korean politician, educator, the sixth and later the last president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, leader of Korean independence movement against the Japanese colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945, and reunification activist who had struggled for the independent reunification of Korea since its national division in 1945. Kim Gu is referred to as the father of the nation in the Republic of Korea.
10. Kwame Nkrumah (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1951 to 1966. Overseeing the nation’s independence from British colonization in 1957, Nkrumah was the first President of Ghana and the first Prime Minister of Ghana. An influential 20th-century advocate of Pan-Africanism, he was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and was the winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963. He saw himself as an African Lenin.
11. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just (25 August 1767 – 28 July 1794) was a military and political leader during the French Revolution. The youngest of the deputies elected to the National Convention in 1792, Saint-Just rose quickly in their ranks and became a major leader of the government of the French First Republic. He spearheaded the movement to execute King Louis XVI and later drafted the radical French Constitution of 1793.
12. Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (September 18, 1900-December 15, 1985) was a Mauritian politician, statesman and philanthropist, a leader in the Mauritian independence movement, and the first Chief Minister, Prime Minister and sixth Governor General of Mauritius. He was the Chairperson of the Organization of African Unity from 1976 to 1977. As the leader of the Labor Party, SSR fought for the rights of laborers and led Mauritius to independence in 1968. As Mauritius’ first Prime Minister, he played a crucial role in shaping modern Mauritius’ government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He worked for the emancipation of the Mauritian population, gave free universal education in 1976, free health care services and introduce old age pensions. He is known as the “Father of the Nation”.
13. Shivaram Rajguru (August 24, 1908 – March 23, 1931) was an Indian revolutionist from Maharashtra. Rajguru.. He was a colleague of Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev, and took part in the murder of a British police officer, J.P. Saunders, at Lahore in 1928. The reason behind the murder was to revenge the death of veteran leader Lala Lajpat Rai who died due to injuries sustained during excessive police beating. All three were convicted of the crime and hanged on March 23, 1931.
14. Yasser Arafat (24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004) was a Palestinian leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and leader of the Fatah political party and former paramilitary group, which he founded in 1959. Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Originally opposed to Israel’s existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242. Arafat and his movement operated from several Arab countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Fatah faced off with Jordan in a brief civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon, Arafat and Fatah were major targets of Israel’s 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country.
1. Agustín de Iturbide (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824) was a Mexican army general and politician. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821. A year later, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of the new nation, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823. He is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag.
2. Ashfaqulla Khan (22 October 1900 – 19 December 1927) was a freedom fighter in the Indian independence movement who had given away his life along with Ram Prasad Bismil.
3. Bhagat Singh (28 September 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian socialist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian Independence movement. He is often referred to as the word “Shaheed” meaning “martyr” in a number of Indian languages. Born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj, as a teenager Singh studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies. He became involved in numerous revolutionary organizations, and quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to become one of its main leaders, eventually changing its name to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928.
4. Christapor Mikaelian (18 October 1859 – 1 March 1905) was one of the three founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation along Stepan Zorian and Simon Zavarian, also part of Armenian national liberation movement.
5. David Ben-Gurion (16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary founder and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
Ben-Gurion’s passion for Zionism, which began early in life, led him to become a major Zionist leader and Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization in 1946. As head of the Jewish Agency, and later president of the Jewish Agency Executive, he became the de facto leader of the Jewish community in Palestine, and largely led its struggle for an independent Jewish state in Palestine. On 14 May 1948, he formally proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel, and was the first to sign the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which he had helped to write. Ben-Gurion led Israel during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and united the various Jewish militias into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). Subsequently, he became known as “Israel’s founding father”.
6. Desmond Tutu (7 October 1931) is a South African social rights activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. He was the first black Archbishop of Cape Town and bishop of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa). He has campaigned to fight AIDS, tuberculosis, poverty, racism, sexism, the imprisonment of Chelsea Manning, homophobia and trans-phobia
7. D.S. Senanayake (20 October 1884 – 22 March 1952) was an independence activist who served as the first Prime Minister of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from 1947 to 1952.
8. Eamon De Valera (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in twentieth-century Ireland. His political career spanned over half a century, from 1917 to 1973; he served multiple terms as head of government and head of state. He also led the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland.
De Valera was a leader of Ireland’s struggle for independence from the United Kingdom in the War of Independence and of the anti-Treaty opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War (1922–1923). After leaving Sinn Féin in 1926 due to their policy of abstentionism, he founded Fianna Fáil, and was head of government (President of the Executive Council, later Taoiseach) from 1932 to 1948, 1951 to 1954, and 1957 to 1959, when he resigned after being elected as President of Ireland. His political creed evolved from militant republicanism to social and cultural conservatism.
9. Enver Hoxha (16 October 1908 – 11 April 1985) was the Communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 1944 until his death. He served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at various times served as foreign minister and defense minister as well.
10 Fumimaro Konoe (12 October 1891 – 16 December 1945) was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. He was Prime Minister in the lead-up to Japan entering World War II.
11. Gerry Adams (6 October 1948) is an Irish republican politician, president of the Sinn Féin political party, and the Teachta Dála (TD) for Louth since the 2011 general election.
12. Grigory Zinoviev September 23, 1883 – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. Zinoviev is best remembered as the longtime head of the Communist International and the architect of several failed attempts to transform Germany into a communist country during the early 1920s. He was in competition against Joseph Stalin who eliminated him from the Soviet political leadership. He was the chief defendant in a 1936 show trial, the Trial of the Sixteen that marked the start of the so-called Great Terror in the USSR and resulted in his execution the day after his conviction in August 1936.
13. John Lennon (9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) was an English musician, singer and songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as a founder member of the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. With Paul McCartney, he formed a songwriting partnership that is one of the most celebrated of the 20th century.
14. John Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 17, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and socialist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant. Reed died in Russia in 1920, and was buried at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.
15. José María Morelos (September 30, 1765 – December 22, 1815,) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. He was later captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815.
16. Lech Walesa (29 September 1943) is a Polish politician, trade-union organizer ,philanthropist and human-rights activist. A charismatic leader, he co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc’s first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland between 1990 and 1995.
17. Mahatma Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world
18. Matangini Hazra (19 October 1870 – 29 September 1942) was an Indian revolutionary who participated in the Indian independence movement until she was shot dead by the British Indian police in front of the Tamluk Police Station on September 29, 1942.
19. Maria Spiridonova (16 October 1884 – 11 September 1941) was a Russian socialist revolutionary. Her assassination of a police official in 1905 was the most famous terrorist act by a woman in Russia, and her subsequent abuse by police made her a celebrated martyr. After 11 years in Siberia, she returned as a heroine of the Revolution. She led the Left SRs into alliance with Lenin and the Bolsheviks, but was imprisoned for a time and incarcerated in a mental sanitarium after the Left SRs broke with the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Spiridonova was arrested by the secret police during the Great Purge of 1937 to 1939 and consigned to the forced labor camps of the Gulag, where she was summarily executed shortly after the outbreak of World War II late in the summer of 1941.
20. Michael Collins (16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance and Teachta Dála (TD) for Cork South in the First Dáil of 1919, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Subsequently, he was both Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the National Army. Collins was shot and killed in an ambush in August 1922 during the Irish Civil War.
21. Nat Turner (October 2, 1800 – November 11, 1831) was an African American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 55 white deaths. Whites responded with at least 200 black deaths. He gathered supporters in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner was convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged. In the aftermath, the state executed 56 blacks accused of being part of Turner’s slave rebellion. Two hundred blacks were also killed after being beaten by white militias and mobs reacting with violence. Across Virginia and other southern states, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.
22. Pedro I of Brazil (12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed “the Liberator”, was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
23. Ruhollah Khomeini (24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989) was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country’s Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death.
24. Samuel Adams (September 27 1722 – October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams.
25. Siad Barre (October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was the military dictator and President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
26. Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech playwright, essayist, poet, dissident and politician.
Havel was the ninth and last president of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992) and the first president of the Czech Republic (1993–2003).
1. Batukeshwar Dutt (November 18, 1910- July 20, 1965) was an Indian revolutionary and a freedom fighter in the early 1900s. He is best known for having exploded a few bombs, along with Bhagat Singh, in the Central Legislative Assembly in New Delhi on 8 April 1929. After they were arrested, tried and imprisoned for life, he and Bhagat Singh initiated a historic hunger strike protesting against the abusive treatment of Indian political prisoners, and eventually secured some rights for them. He was also a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
2. Birsa Munda (November 15, 1875–June 9, 1900) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter and a folk hero, who belonged to the Munda tribe, and was behind the Millenarian movement that rose in the tribal belt of modern day Bihar, and Jharkhand during the British Raj, in the late 19th century, thereby making him an important figure in the history of the Indian independence movement.
3. C. Odumegwu Ojukwu (4 November 1933 – 26 November 2011]) was a Nigerian military officer and politician. Ojukwu served as the military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria in 1966, the leader of the breakaway Republic of Biafra from 1967 to 1970 and a Nigerian politician from 1983 to 2011, when he died, aged 78.
4. Carlos Lamarca (October 23, 1937 – September 17, 1971) was a Brazilian Army Captain who deserted to become a communist guerilla member. He was a part of the revolutionary guerrilla group Popular Revolutionary Vanguard and became, along with Carlos Marighella, one of the major elements of communist subversion in Brazil. Lamarca was the only man in the republican History of Brazil to receive the status of traitor, being considered an “enemy of the state” by the military dictatorship of the time.
5. Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a 20th-century Chinese political and military leader. Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. He became the Commandant of the Kuomintang’s Whampoa Military Academy and took Sun’s place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925. In 1926, Chiang led the Northern Expedition to unify the country, becoming China’s nominal leader. He served as Chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China (ROC) from 1928 to 1948. Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War (the Chinese theater of World War II), consolidating power from the party’s former regional warlords. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting western democracy and the nationalist democratic socialism that Sun embraced in favor of an authoritarian government.
6. Daniel Ortega (11 November 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician who has been President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction and then as President. A leader in the socialist Sandinista National Liberation Front, his policies in government have seen the implementation of leftist reforms across Nicaragua.
7. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women’s rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized women’s rights and women’s suffrage movements in the United States.
8. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (29 October 1938) is the 24th and current President of Liberia. She served as Minister of Finance under President William Tolbert from 1979 until the 1980 coup d’état, after which she left Liberia and held senior positions at various financial institutions. She placed second in the 1997 presidential election won by Charles Taylor. She won the 2005 presidential election and took office on 16 January 2006, and she was a successful candidate for re-election in 2011. Sirleaf is the first elected female head of state in Africa.
9. Evo Morales (October 26, 1959) is a Bolivian cocalero activist and politician, who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006. Widely regarded as the country’s first democratically-elected President to come from the indigenous population, his administration has focused on the implementation of leftist policies, poverty reduction, and combating the influence of the United States and transnational corporations in Bolivia. A democratic socialist, he is the head of the Movement for Socialism (MAS) political party.
10. Francisco I. Madero (30 October 1873?22 February 1913) was a Mexican statesman, writer, and revolutionary who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913. An advocate for social justice and democracy, Madero was instrumental in creating the revolutionary movement that began in 1910 and led to the fall of the dictatorship of then-president, Porfirio Diaz.
11. Georges Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton’s role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as “the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic”.
12. Huang Xing (October 25, 1874 – October 31, 1916), was a Chinese revolutionary leader, militarist, and statesman, and the first army commander-in-chief of the Republic of China. As one of the founders of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Republic of China, his position was second only to Sun Yat-sen.
13. Jatindra Nath Das (27 October 1904 – 13 September 1929) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. He died in Lahore jail after a continuous hunger strike for 63 days and it shocked the whole of India.
14. Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics for much of the 20th century. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian Independence Movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and ruled India from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in office in 1964. Nehru is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state; a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic.
15. John Adams (October 30,1735 – July 4, 1826) was the second president of the United States (1797–1801), having earlier served as the first vice president of the United States. An American Founding Father, Adams was a statesman, diplomat, and a leading advocate of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenment political theorist who promoted republicanism, as well as a strong central government, and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas, both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail Adams, as well as to other Founding Fathers. Adams was a lifelong opponent of slavery. In 1770, he provided a principled, controversial, and successful legal defense to British soldiers, accused in the Boston Massacre because he believed in the right to counsel and the “protect[ion] of innocence.”
16. Leon Trotsky (7 November 1879– 21 August 1940) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
17. Lon Nol (November 13, 1913 – November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice, as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. He led a military coup against Prince Norodom Sihanouk in 1970 and became the self-proclaimed President of the newly created Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975.
18. Nestor Makhno (November 8, 1888 – July 6, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War.
19. Norodom Sihanouk (31 October 1922 – 15 October 2012) was the King of Cambodia from 1941 to 1955 and again from 1993 to 2004. He was the effective ruler of Cambodia from 1953 to 1970. After his second abdication in 2004, he was known as “The King-Father of Cambodia” a position in which he retained many of his former responsibilities as constitutional monarch.
20. Paul Kagame (23 October 1957) is the sixth and current President of Rwanda, having taken office in 2000 when his predecessor, Pasteur Bizimungu, resigned. Kagame previously commanded the rebel force that ended the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, and was considered Rwanda’s de facto leader when he served as Vice President and Minister of Defense from 1994 to 2000.
21. Rani Lakshmibai (19 November 1828 – 18 June 1858) was the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi, situated in the north-central part of India. She was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and for Indian nationalists a symbol of resistance to the rule of the British East India Company in the subcontinent.
22. Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China(“Nationalist China”). As the foremost pioneer of Republic of China, Sun is referred to as the “Father of the Nation” in the Republic of China (ROC), and the “forerunner of democratic revolution” in the People’s Republic of China. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the years leading up to the Double Ten Revolution. He was appointed to serve as Provisional President of the Republic of China, when it was founded in 1912. He later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT), serving as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan Strait.
1. Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was an American political and social activist who co-founded the Youth International Party (“Yippies”).
Hoffman was arrested and tried for conspiracy and inciting to riot as a result of his role in protests that led to violent confrontations with police during the 1968 Democratic National Convention along with seven others. While the defendants were initially convicted of intent to incite a riot, the verdicts were overturned on appeal.
Hoffman came to prominence in the 1960s, and continued practicing his activism in the 1970s, and has remained a symbol of the youth rebellion of the counterculture era.
2. Abimael Guzmán (3 December 1934) was a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Shining Path during the Maoist insurgency, known as the internal conflict in Peru. Shining Path had been active in Peru since the late 1970s and began what it called “the armed struggle” on 17 May 1980. Wanted on charges of terrorism and treason, Guzmán was captured by the Peruvian government in 1992 and sentenced to life imprisonment.
3. Adem Jashari (28 November 1955 – 7 March 1998) was one of the founders of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), a Kosovo Albanian irredentist organization which fought for the separation of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the 1990s.
Seen as the “father of the KLA”, Jashari is considered a symbol of Kosovan independence by ethnic Albanians. He was posthumously awarded with the title “Hero of Kosovo” following the disputed territory’s declaration of independence in 2008.
4. Alexander Dubcekv (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician and, briefly, leader of Czechoslovakia (1968–1969). He attempted to reform the communist regime during the Prague Spring. Later, after the overthrow of the government in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czecho-Slovak parliament.
5. Andrés Bonifacio (30 November 1863 – 10 May 1897) was a Filipino nationalist and revolutionary. He is often called “the father of the Philippine Revolution”. He was a founder and later (“supreme leader”) of the Katipunan movement which sought the independence of the Philippines from Spanish colonial rule and started the Philippine Revolution.
6. Bagha Jatin (7 December 1879 – 10 September 1915) was a Bengali revolutionary philosopher against British rule.
He was the principal leader of the Yugantar party that was the central association of revolutionaries in Bengal. Having personally met the German Crown-Prince in Calcutta shortly before World War I, he obtained the promise of arms and ammunition from Germany; as such, he was responsible for the planned German Plot during World War I.
7. Benigno Aquino, Jr. (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was a Filipino Senator (1967-1972) and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the government of President Ferdinand Marcos.
8. Carlos Marighella (5 December 1911 – 4 November 1969) was a Brazilian Marxist revolutionary and writer.
9. Charles de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first president from 1959 to 1969.
10. Dinesh Gupta (6 December 1911 – 7 July 1931) was a Bengali revolutionary who fought against British colonial rule.
11. Francisco Franco (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish military leader who ruled as the dictator of Spain from 1939 to his death in 1975. He came to power during the Spanish Civil War while serving as the Generalísimo of the Nationalist faction.
12. Friedrich Engels (28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
13. Ibrahim Rugova (2 December 1944 – 21 January 2006) was the first President of Kosovo, serving from 1992 to 2000 and again from 2002 to 2006, and a prominent Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer. He oversaw a popular struggle for independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying for U.S. and European support, especially during the Kosovo War. He strongly emphasized the heritage of ancient Dardania, the independent kingdom and later province of the Roman Empire that included modern-day Kosovo, to strengthen the country’s identity and to promote his policy of closer relations with the West. Owing to his role in Kosovo’s history, Rugova has been dubbed “Father of the Nation” and “Gandhi of the Balkans,” awarded, among others, the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, and posthumously declared a Hero of Kosovo.
14. Ismail Enver (22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922) was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, and is seen as one of the principal orchestrators of the Armenian Genocide and the Assyrian Genocide. He was the main leader of the Ottoman Empire in both Balkan Wars and World War I.
15. Joseph Stalin (18 December 1878– 5 March 1953), was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
16. Józef Pilsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; Chief of State(1918–22), “First Marshal” (from 1920), and leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he had a major influence in Poland’s politics, and was an important figure on the European political scene.] He was the person most responsible for the creation of the Second Republic of Poland in 1918, 123 years after it had been taken over by Russia, Austria and Prussia.
17. Khudiram Bose (3 December 1889 – 11 August 1908) was a Bengali revolutionary, one of the youngest revolutionaries early in the Indian independence movement. At the time of his hanging, he was 18 years, 7 months 11 days old.
18. Laszlo Bardossy (10 December 1890 – 10 January 1946) was a Hungarian diplomat and politician who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1941 to 1942.
On matters of domestic policy, Bárdossy proved to be an advocate of radical right wing politics. An anti-Semite, Bárdossy enacted the Third Jewish Law in August 1941, which severely limited Jewish economic and employment opportunities and prohibited Jews from marrying or having sexual intercourse with non-Jews. Bárdossy also approved the policy of deporting non-Hungarians from the territory seized from Yugoslavia, and authorized the slaughter of thousands of Jews in Novi Sad.
19. Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 18, 2001) was President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 18, 2001. He was succeeded by his son Joseph eight days later.
20. Mikheil Saakashvili (21 December 1967) is a Georgian politician and was the third President of Georgia for two consecutive terms from 25 January 2004 to 17 November 2013. He is the founder and leader of the United National Movement Party.
21. Peter Kropotkin (9 December 1842 – 8 February 1921) was a Russian zoologist, evolutionary theorist, philosopher, scientist, revolutionary, philologist, economist, activist, geographer, writer, and prominent anarcho-communist.
Kropotkin advocated a communist society free from central government and based on voluntary associations between workers.
22. Steve Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was an anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s.
A student leader, he later founded the Black Consciousness Movement which would empower and mobilize much of the urban black population. Since his death in police custody, he has been called a martyr of the anti-apartheid movement.
23. Thomas Sankara (December 21, 1949 – October 15, 1987) was a Burkinabé military captain, Marxist revolutionary, Pan-Africanist theorist, and President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987. Viewed by some as a charismatic and iconic figure of revolution, he is commonly referred to as “Africa’s Che Guevara”.
24. Velupillai Prabhakaran (November 26, 1954 – May 18, 2009) was the founder and leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers), a militant organization that sought to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. For over 25 years, the LTTE waged a violent secessionist campaign in Sri Lanka that led to it being designated a terrorist organization by 32 countries. Prabhakaran was wanted by Interpol for terrorism, murder, organized crime and terrorism conspiracy. He also had arrest warrants against him in Sri Lanka and India.
25. Viktor Chernov (December 7, 1873 – April 15, 1952) was a Russian revolutionary and one of the founders of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party. He was the primary party theoretician or the ‘brain’ of the party, and was more analyst than political leader.
1. Ahmed Ben Bella (25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary, who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.
2. Ahmed Sékou Touré (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984. Touré was one of the primary Guinean nationalists involved in the independence of the country from France.
3. Ahmed Yassin (January 1, 1937 – 22 March 2004) was a founder of Hamas, an Islamist Palestinian paramilitary organization and political party. Yassin also served as the spiritual leader of the organization. Hamas gained popularity in Palestinian society by establishing hospitals, education systems, libraries and other services, but it has also claimed responsibility for a number of suicide attacks targeting Israeli civilians, leading to its being characterized by the European Union, Israel, Japan, Canada, and the United States as a terrorist organization.
4. Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and in many ways was “the First American”. A world famous polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions.
5. Boris Savinkov (19 January 1879 – 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionary terrorist. As one of the leaders of the Fighting Organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, he was responsible for the most spectacular assassinations of imperial officials in 1904 and 1905.
Later, he became Assistant War Minister in the Provisional Government. Savinkov emigrated in 1920, but in 1924 he made an endeavor to return to Russia, was arrested and either was killed in prison or committed suicide.
6. Chen Qimei (January 17, 1878 – May 18, 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary activist, close political ally of Sun Yat-sen, and early mentor of Chiang Kai-shek. He was as one of the founders of the Republic of China.
7. Gamal Abdel Nasser (15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.
8. Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944. As Prime Minister, he was directly responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor, which initiated war between Japan and the United States, although planning for it had begun before he entered office. After the end of the war, Tojo was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and was hanged on December 23, 1948.
9. Luís Carlos Prestes (January 3, 1898 – March 7, 1990) was one of the organizers of the 1920s tenente revolts and the Communist opposition to the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas in Brazil.
10. Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People’s Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death. His Marxist-Leninist theories, military strategies and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought.
11. Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
12. Mehmet Shehu (January 10, 1913 – December 17, 1981) was an Albanian communist politician who served as premier of Albania from 1954 to 1981. As an acknowledged military tactician, without whose leadership the communist partisans may well have failed in their battle to win Albania for the Marxist cause.
13. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan’s independence on 14 August 1947, and as Pakistan’s first Governor-General from independence until his death.
14. Phan Boi Chau (26 December 1867 – 29 October 1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese 20th century nationalism. In 1903, he formed a revolutionary organization called the “Reformation Society”. From 1905-08, he lived in Japan where he wrote political tracts calling for the liberation of Vietnam from the French colonial regime. After being forced to leave Japan, he moved to China where he was influenced by Sun Yat-sen. He formed a new group called the “Vietnamese Restoration League”, modeled after Sun Yat-sen’s republican party. In 1925, French agents seized him in Shanghai. He was convicted of treason and spent the rest of his life under house arrest in Hu?.
15. Udham Singh (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940) was an Indian revolutionary, best known for assassinating Michael O’Dwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avenging of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre.
16. Venustiano Carranza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Victoriano Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted.
17. Zhang Binglin (December 25, 1868 – June 14, 1936) was a Chinese philologist, textual critic, philosopher, and a revolutionary.
1. Antonio Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian writer, politician, political theorist, philosopher, sociologist, and linguist. He was a founding member and onetime leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini’s Fascist regime.
2. Aung San (13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, founder of the modern Burmese army, and considered to be the Father of modern-day Burma.
He was responsible for bringing Burma’s independence from British Colonial rule in Burma, but was assassinated six months before independence. He is recognized as the leading architect of independence, and the founder of the Union of Burma.
3. Bob Marley (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer-songwriter who achieved international fame through a series of crossover reggae albums. Starting out in 1963 with the group the Wailers, he forged a distinctive songwriting and vocal style that would later resonate with audiences worldwide. The Wailers would go on to release some of the earliest reggae records with producer Lee Scratch Perry. After the Wailers disbanded in 1974, Marley pursued a solo career which culminated in the release of the album Exodus in 1977 which established his worldwide reputation. He was a committed Rastafarian who infused his music with a profound sense of spirituality.
4. Boris Yeltsin (1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
He vowed to transform Russia’s socialist command economy into a free market economy and implemented economic shock therapy, price liberalization and privatization programs. Due to the method of privatization, a good deal of the national wealth fell into the hands of a small group of oligarchs. Much of the Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, inflation, economic collapse and enormous political and social problems that affected Russia and the other former states of the USSR. Within the first few years of his presidency, many of Yeltsin’s political supporters turned against him and Vice President Alexander Rutskoy denounced the reforms as “economic genocide”.
5. Camilo Cienfuegos (February 6, 1932 – October 28, 1959) was a Cuban revolutionary born in Lawton, Havana. Raised in an anarchist family that had left Spain before the Spanish Civil War, he became a key figure of the Cuban Revolution, along with Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Juan Almeida Bosque, and Raúl Castro.
6. Corazon Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, the first woman to hold that office, and the first female president in Asia. Regarded as the “Icon of Philippine Democracy”, Aquino was the most prominent figure of the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled the 21-year authoritarian rule of President Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy to the Philippines. She was named Time magazine’s “Woman of the Year” in 1986.
7. Damdin Sükhbaatar (February 2, 1893 – February 20, 1923) was a founding member of the Mongolian People’s Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that liberated Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. Enshrined as the “Father of Mongolia’s Revolution”, he is remembered as one of the most important figures in Mongolia’s struggle for independence.
8. Daniel Andreas San Diego (February 9, 1978) is the first Revolutionary American environmentalist added to the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists list. He is a straight edge vegan and animal liberationist who has an alleged association with the Animal Liberation Brigade cell responsible for two bombings in 2003. He is believed to have ties to Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty.
9. Georgios Karaiskakis (January 23, 1780 or January 23, 1782 – April 23, 1827) was a famous Greek military commander, and a hero of the Greek War of Independence.
10. Gotse Delchev (February 4, 1872–1903) was an important revolutionary figure in Ottoman-ruled Macedonia and Thrace at the turn of the 20th century. He was one of the leaders of what is known today as Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), a paramilitary organization active in the Ottoman territories in Europe at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
11. Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989) was an African-American political and urban activist who, along with Bobby Seale, co-founded the Black Panther Party in 1966. Newton had a long series of confrontations with law enforcement, including several convictions, while he participated in political activism.
12. Isaias Afewerki (February 2, 1946) is the first President of the State of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993. He led the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) to victory in May 1991, thus ending the 30-year-old armed liberation struggle that the Eritrean people refer to as “Gedli”. The EPLF adopted a new political party name, People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) to reflect its new responsibilities. The PFDJ, with Afwerki as its leader, still rules Eritrea.
13. John Hancock (January 23, 1737 – October 8, 1793) was a merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, so much so that the term “John Hancock” became, in the United States, a synonym for signature.
14. José Martí (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) is a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. He was also a part of the Cuban Freemasons. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba’s bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the “Apostle of Cuban Independence.”
15. Juan Pablo Duarte (January 26, 1813 – July 15, 1876) is one of the founding fathers of the Dominican Republic. He was a visionary and liberal thinker, who along with Francisco del Rosario Sánchez and Matías Ramón Mella, is widely considered to be the architect of the Dominican Republic and its independence from Haitian rule in 1844. He would help create the political-military organization La Trinitaria to fight against the Haitian occupation, achieve independence, and create a self-sufficient nation established on the liberal ideals of a democratic government.
16. Lord Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824) was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic Movement. Among Byron’s best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage and the short lyric She Walks in Beauty. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential.
He travelled all over Europe especially in Italy where he lived for 7 years and then joined the Greek War of Independence, fighting the Ottoman Empire, for which Greeks revere him as a national hero.
17. Mammad Amin Rasulzade (January 31, 1884— died March 6, 1955) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and the first and only president of Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan (1918–1920). His expression (“The flag once raised will never fall!”) has become the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.
18. Nicolae Ceausescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician. He was General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and as such was the country’s last Communist leader. He was also the country’s head of state from 1967 to 1989.
19. Pascual Orozco (28 January 1882 – 30 August 1915) was a Mexican revolutionary leader who, after the triumph of the Mexican Revolution, rose up against Francisco I. Madero and recognized the coup d’état led by Victoriano Huerta and the government it imposed.
20. Pavel Dybenko (February 16, 1889 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian revolutionary and a leading Soviet officer of enslaved Ukrainian cossack origin.
21. Robert W. Wilcox (February 15, 1855 – October 23, 1903) was a native Hawaiian revolutionary soldier and politician. He led uprisings against both the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kalakaua and the Republic of Hawaii under Sanford Dole, what are now known as the Wilcox rebellions. He was later elected the first delegate to the United States Congress for the Territory of Hawaii.
22. Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Japan left a troubled legacy.
23. Tunku Abdul Rahman (February 8, 1903 – December 6, 1990) was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country’s first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained as the Prime Minister after Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore joined the federation in 1963 to form Malaysia.
1. Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, pacifism and non-violence, and gay rights. He was born and raised in Pennsylvania where his family was involved in civil rights work.
2. Bobby Sands (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze.
He was the leader of the 1981 hunger strike in which Irish republican prisoners protested against the removal of Special Category Status. During his strike he was elected to the British Parliament as an Anti H-Block candidate. His death was followed by a new surge of Provisional IRA recruitment and activity. International media coverage brought attention to the hunger strikers, and the republican movement in general, attracting both praise and criticism.
3. Camille Desmoulins (2 March 1760 – 5 April 1794) was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution. He was a childhood friend of Maximilien Robespierre and a close friend and political ally of Georges Danton, who were influential figures in the French Revolution. Desmoulins was tried and executed alongside Danton in response to Dantonist opposition to the Committee of Public Safety.
4. Deniz Gezmis (27 February 1947 – 6 May 1972) was a Turkish Marxist-Leninist revolutionary and political activist in Turkey in the late 1960s. He was one of the founding members of the People’s Liberation Army of Turkey (THKO).
5. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and which remains the supreme law of the land.
6. Ion Iliescu (3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician and statesman, who served as the first democratically elected by popular vote President of Romania from 1990 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a senator for the Social Democratic Party (PSD), whose honorary president he remains.
7. José de San Martín (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850) was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America’s successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire.
8. Muhammad Naguib (20 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan. Disagreements with Nasser led to his forced removal from office and subsequent 18 year house arrest until his release by President Anwar Sadat in 1972.
9. Robert F. Williams (February 26, 1925 – October 15, 1996) was a civil rights leader and author, best known for serving as president of the Monroe, North Carolina chapter of the NAACP in the 1950s and early 1960s. At a time when racial tension was high and official abuses were rampant, Williams was a key figure in promoting armed black self-defense in the United States.
10. Robert Mugabe (21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who is the President of Zimbabwe. As one of the leaders of the rebel groups against white minority rule, he was elected as Prime Minister, head of government, in 1980, and served in that office until 1987, when he became the country’s first executive head of state. Having been repeatedly re-elected, he retains this post to this day. He has led the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) since 1975.
11. Rosa Luxemburg (5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was successively a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
12. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (17 March 1920 – 15 August 1975) was a Bengali nationalist politician and statesman. He was the paramount independence leader of Bangladesh and is regarded as the founding father of the nation. He headed the Awami League and was the first President of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War, and later became Prime Minister in independent Bangladesh.
13. Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was an Austrian-Czech politician, sociologist and philosopher, who as an eager advocate of Czechoslovak independence during World War I became the founder and first President of Czechoslovakia. He originally wished to reform the Austro-Hungarian monarchy into a democratic federal state, but during the First World War he began to favor the abolition of the monarchy and, with the help of the Allied Powers, eventually succeeded.
14. Túpac Amaru II (March 19, 1742 – May 18, 1781) was the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to myriad causes in Peru.
15. Viktor Yushchenko (February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was President of Ukraine from 2005 to 2010.
16. W. E. B. Du Bois (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.